World Journal of Endocrine Surgery

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VOLUME 15 , ISSUE 2 ( May-August, 2023 ) > List of Articles


A Rare Case of Thyroid Hemiagenesis with Graves Disease

Aneesh Sugunan, Zahir Hussain Samhoon, Kumaran M Palaniappan, Ramesh Kalyanapu, Aadarsh Raghavan, Boddukara Sahithi Priya

Keywords : Autoimmune disease, Case report, Graves disease, Hyperthyroidism, Thyroid hemiagenesis

Citation Information : Sugunan A, Samhoon ZH, Palaniappan KM, Kalyanapu R, Raghavan A, Priya BS. A Rare Case of Thyroid Hemiagenesis with Graves Disease. World J Endoc Surg 2023; 15 (2):50-52.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10002-1455

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 30-10-2023

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2023; The Author(s).


Background: Hemiagenesis of the thyroid is a rare congenital condition that is characterized by an absence of a thyroid lobe. The prevalence rate of hemiagenesis is about 0.02% and is usually detected incidentally. Hemiagenesis of the thyroid gland is a rare congenital anomaly with about 800 cases reported in the literature untill 2020. Case description: A 36-year-old female presented with complaints of weight loss, palpitation, and tremors for the past 3 months. She also gives a history of right-sided neck swelling of a duration of 1 month. A thyroid function test was done and revealed a hyperthyroid state (free T4:3.2 ng/dL, free T3:12.7 pg/mL, TSH: <0.005 mIU/mL). Ultrasound revealed a diffusely enlarged (4.5 × 3.5 × 3 cm) heterogenous hypoechoic right lobe with increased vascularity on Doppler and isthmus of thickness 7.9 mm and an absent left lobe. Thyroid scintigraphy revealed an increased uptake of 8% in the right lobe and isthmus with absent uptake of tracer in the left lobe. A thyroid antibody panel was done and it revealed elevated levels of anti-thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor antibodies and anti-thyroid peroxidase (TPO) antithyroid microsomal antibody (AMA) antibodies. She attained a clinical and biochemical euthyroid state after 3 months of medical treatment and was admitted and planned for total thyroidectomy. The final histopathology report was suggestive of hyperplastic goiter with an absent left thyroid lobe. Conclusion: Thyroid hemiagenesis is a rare congenital anomaly of the thyroid gland and when suspected the diagnosis should be confirmed by an ultrasound neck and a thyroid scintigraphy scan. Clinical significance: Patients with hemiagenesis of the thyroid have a higher risk of developing thyroid disorders and should be kept under close follow-up to diagnose them early for a better outcome.

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