Radioiodine is not the Preferred Choice of Treatment for Pediatric Graves' Disease
Sagili Vijaya Bhaskar Reddy
Citation Information :
Reddy SV. Radioiodine is not the Preferred Choice of Treatment for Pediatric Graves' Disease. World J Endoc Surg 2010; 2 (2):81-85.
Copyright © 2010; The Author(s).
Radioactive iodine (RAI) ablation for treatment of hyperthyroidism in Pediatric Graves' disease is effective but limited literature exists regarding its long-term safety. There is no long-term prospective randomized controlled study on long-term safety of pediatric Graves' disease receiving RAI ablation. There are concerns regarding development of both thyroid and non-thyroidal malignancy, and primary hyperparathyroidism in subjects receiving RAI. Current evidences donot support routine use of RAI ablation in such situation. Surgery is a safe option.
Thyrotoxicosis in children. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 1998;27:109-25.
Clinical review 99: The management of Graves’ disease in children, with special emphasis on radioiodine treatment. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1998;83:3767-76.
Thyrotoxicosis in prepubertal children compared with pubertal and postpubertal patients. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2000;85:3678-82.
Radioiodine treatment for pediatric Graves’ disease. Cochrane database Syst Rev 2008;3:CD006294.
Biologic effects of radioiodines on the human thyroid gland. In: Braverman LE, Utiger RD (Eds). Werner and Ingbar's the Thyroid (8th ed). Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins 2000;345-54.
Thyroid cancer after exposure to external radiation: A pooled analysis of seven studies. Radiation Research 1995;141:259-77.
Risk of thyroid cancer after exposure to 131I in childhood. J Natl Cancer Inst 2005;96:724-32.
Cancer incidence following treatment for hyperthyroidism. Int J Epidemiol 1982;11:218-24.
Cancer risk after iodine- 131 therapy for hyperthyroidism. J Natl Cancer Inst 1991;83:1072-77.
Cancer mortality following treatment for adult hyperthyroidism. Cooperative Thyrotoxicosis Therapy Follow-up Study Group. JAMA 1998;280:347-55.
Cancer incidence and mortaility after radioiodine treatment for hyperthyroidism: A population-based cohort study. Lancet 1999;353:2111-15.
Increased cancer incidence after radioiodine treatment for hyperthyroidism. Cancer 2007;109:1072-79.
Second primary malignancy risk in thyroid cancer survivors: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Thyroid 2007;17:1277-88.
Doseresponse relationships for radiation-induced hyperparathyroidism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1995;80:254-57.
Hyperparathyroidism after radioactive iodine therapy for Graves disease. Surgery 1982;92:811-13.
An evaluation of the incidence of hyperparathyroidism after 131I treatment for Basedow disease. Kaku Igaku 1996;33:729-35.
Risk of parathyroid adenomas in patients with thyrotoxicosis exposed to radioactive iodine. Acta Oncologica 2006;45:1059-61.
Hyperparathyroidism after radioactive iodine therapy. Am J Surg 2007;194:323-27.
Irradiation of the thyroid as a cause of parathyroid adenoma. Lancet 1977;1:593-94.
Experimental induction of parathyroid adenomas in the rat. J Natl Cancer Inst 1983;70:127-34.
Long-term follow-up results in children and adolescents treated with radioactive iodine (131I) for hyperthyroidism. N Engl J Med 1975;292:167-71.
A 36-year retrospective analysis of the efficacy and safety of radioactive iodine in treating young Graves’ patients. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2004;89:4229-33.
Diagnosis and treatment of thyrotoxicosis in childhood. A European questionnaire study. Eur J Endocrinol 1994;131: 467-73.
A questionnaire survey concerning the most favourable treatment for Graves’ disease in children and adolescents. Eur J Endocrinol 2004;151:155-56.
Treatment of childhoodonset Graves’ disease in Japan: Results of nationwide questionnaire survey of pediatric endocrinologists and thyroidologists. Thyroid 2007;17:67-72.
Surgical management of Graves’ disease in childhood and adolescence: An institutional experience. Surgery 2006;140:1056-61.
Surgical treatment of Graves’ disease in children. Thyroid 2004;14:447-52.
Surgical treatment of Graves’ disease in children younger than 18 years. World J Surg 1996;20:794-99.
The optimal treatment for pediatric Graves’ disease is surgery. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2007;92:801-03.