How to cite this article:
Gupta S, Kumari N, Pradhan R. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone-producing Neuroendocrine Tumors of Thymus: Case Series and Review of Literature. World J Endoc Surg 2018; 10 (1):1-4.
Since the first description of thymic carcinoid as a specific entity in 1972 by Rosai and Higa, approximately 92 cases of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-producing thymic neuroendocrine associated with Cushing\'s syndrome (CS) have been described between 1980 and 2011. We report here three new cases of neuroendocrine tumor (NET) of thymus associated with ectopic production of ACTH along with review of recent literature.
All our three cases were middle age (2 male and 1 female) with clinical features of CS. Two of the three patients had hyperpigmentation. All the three underwent transsternal excision of thymic tumor.
The NET of the thymus associated with CS can occur at any age from 4 to 64 years; however, meta-analysis revealed that majority of cases occur between 18 and 40 years. There is no sex predilection for these tumors except for the NETs which are associated with MEN-1, which occurred predominantly in males.
Majority of these patients would present with clinical features of CS, although the severity and rapidity of onset would vary.
The ACTH-producing NET is a rare cause of CS and requires high suspicion to make an early diagnosis and is a locally aggressive disease that requires aggressive surgical resection. Adjuvant radiotherapy may be beneficial.
Theodossis S Papavramidis
How to cite this article:
Chorti A, Pliakos I, Panidis S, Koletsa T, Georgios T, Zadala M, Manani C, Michalopoulos A, Papavramidis TS. Parathyroid Cyst containing an Adenoma: A Rare Cervical Lesion causing Hyperparathyroidism. World J Endoc Surg 2018; 10 (1):5-7.
Aim and introduction: Parathyroid cysts (PCs) are lesions arising from the parathyroid glands and are located from the angle of the mandible to the mediastinum, representing 1 to 5% of neck masses. They have a female predominance and occur usually in the fourth and fifth decade of life. They are subdivided into two categories according to their hormonal activity: Functioning and nonfunctioning ones. Except for parathyroid adenoma, hyperplasia, and carcinoma, functioning cysts are an additional rare cause of primary hyperparathyroidism (PH) and should be taken into consideration in the investigation of cystic neck masses.
Case report: We report a case of 38-year-old man, who was admitted to our hospital for the investigation of an asymptomatic hypercalcemia identified incidentally. In his laboratory tests, ionized calcium and parathormone (PTH) were elevated, while phosphorus was decreased. A 6.5 × 3.5 cm cystic structure was revealed in ultrasound examination, scintigraphy, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan, but was not indicative of PC, and surgical exploration was mandatory. The cyst was completely excised and the pathological examination revealed a PC that coexisted with an adenoma. Postoperative PTH, calcium, and phosphorus values were within normal ranges and the patient was discharged the first postoperative day.
Conclusion and clinical significance: Parathyroid cysts should be treated with gentle manipulations during surgical procedure in order that it is not ruptured and the recurrence is avoided.