How to cite this article:
Kasım Ç, Güngör B, Koca B, Çınar H, Malazgirt Z, Polat C, Erzurumlu K. The Efficiency of Parathyroidectomy and the Comparison of the Complications of Surgical Procedures in Dialysis Patients. World J Endoc Surg 2011; 3 (3):103-106.
Secondary hyperparathyroidism is the hyperplasia and hyperfunctioning of the parathyroid gland in chronic renal failure. The aim of our study was to evaluate the efficiency and complications of surgical methods for secondary hyperparathyroidism in patients requiring dialysis. Forty-one patients operated for secondary hyperparathyroidism before renal transplantation were retrospectively analysed. The efficiency and complications of types of surgery in relation with age, gender, duration of dialysis, symptoms, laboratory test results before and after surgery were evaluated. Mean duration of dialysis was 6.2 ± 3.98 years. Patient's calcium, phosphorus and parathormone levels before surgery were 9.83 ± 1.25 mg/dl, 5.73 ± 2.15 mg/dl, 1847, 0.02 ± 666.602 pg/ml and, after surgery, were 7.85 ± 1.36 mg/dl, 4.5 ± 1.55 mg/dl, 288.05 ± 404.09 pg/ml. The differences betweeen preoperative and postoperative values were statistically significant (p < 0.05) recognizing the efficiency of surgery. The age of patients, the duration of dialysis and the type of surgery were not significantly effective on this difference (p > 0.05). Fifteen patients had subtotal parathyroidectomy, 25 patients had total parathyroidectomy with autotransplantation and one patient had total parathyroidectomy. The incidence of complications did not differ with age, gender, duration of dialysis and type of surgery (p > 0.05). The type of surgery did not possess difference in the improvement in levels of calcium, phosphorus and parathormone and also in the incidence of complications in secondary hyperparathyroidism. Surgeon's experience and individual patient characteristics seem to be more important in determining the type of surgery.
Rachel L O'Connell,
Martin H Thomas
Primary hyperparathyroidism (HPT) is treated by parathyroidectomy. Excision of abnormal parathyroid tissue is curative in the majority of cases. Postoperative persistent or recurrent HPT has been reported up to 30%. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of imaging techniques and determine the efficacy of reexplorative surgery. A total of 306 patients underwent parathyroidectomy between 2000 and 2009. Twelve patients (3.9%) were not cured. Two patients declined further treatment, the other 10 patients underwent further investigation and surgery. Imaging and results of redo surgery together with associated complications were evaluated. All 10 patients were investigated with sestamibi, which accurately localized aberrant parathyroid tissue in three cases and ultrasound scans which also localized three cases. CT was useful in one of the three cases for which it was used. PET and MRI were not helpful. Twelve glands were resected, six adenomas, five hyperplastic and one normal gland. Nine of the 10 reoperated patients became normocalcemic. Complications included a bilateral recurrent laryngeal paresis. In total, 317 operations were performed and 303 of 306 (99%) patients were cured. Redo surgery for HPT is challenging and carries higher risks than primary surgery. Sestamibi and ultrasound scans are the most helpful imaging modalities. When there is concordance a targeted approach may be considered, otherwise a more extensive dissection is required. Redo parathyroid surgery should be considered, even if scans are unhelpful, for patients who are symptomatic or young or have a persistently high calcium level.
How to cite this article:
Kagawa C, Hibi Y, Uchida H, Noda S, Idota A, Sato S, Hayashi H, Kikumori T, Imai T, Kiuchi T. Postoperative Outcomes of Familial Adrenal Pheochromocytoma1. World J Endoc Surg 2011; 3 (3):112-115.
There are no current guidelines for the management of familial pheochromocytoma (FP). We tried to determine the optimal management of patients with FP. Among 191 patients with pheochromocytoma who underwent surgical resection between 1979 and 2010, there were 18 FP (13 different kindreds; 11 females/7 males; mean age at initial operation: 38.7 years). The 18 FP cases comprised 10 with MEN2A, 2 with MEN2B, 4 with von Hippel-Lindau disease, and 2 with FP only, and all pheochromocytomas were of adrenal origin. The number of probands and family members was 9 and 9 respectively. Mean tumor size was 6.4 cm in diameter. Simultaneous bilateral adrenalectomy was performed in 6 patients, and unilateral adrenalectomy was performed as the initial surgery in 12 patients. A metachronous contralateral adrenalectomy was performed in 3 patients, 90, 236 and 312 months after the primary operation, respectively. None of the patients received partial adrenalectomy. Among another 9 patients with unilateral adrenalectomy, contralateral pheochromocytomas were suspected in 4 cases at the initial operation. However, none of these contralateral lesions developed severe symptoms or tumor enlargement during a median follow-up of 116 months. In the remaining 5 patients, pheochromocytoma did not develop in the contralateral adrenals over a median follow-up of 80.5 months. Bilateral lesions of adrenal pheochromocytoma in familial cases occurred in 78% of cases (14/18); 9 patients (including 4 with contralateral pheochromocytoma) did not require a contralateral adrenalectomy during a median follow-up of 119 months. No patients have suffered from Addisonian crisis. The ipsilateral adrenalectomy and follow-up of contralateral small pheochromocytoma is one of the management options to preserve adrenocortical function in FP patients.
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Law MT, Taylor M, Bennett IC. Surgeon-performed Ultrasound-guided Needle Biopsy of the Thyroid: A Safe and Effective Diagnostic Procedure. World J Endoc Surg 2011; 3 (3):116-121.
With the ready availability of good quality portable units, office-based ultrasound (US) is increasingly being utilized by endocrine surgeons in their daily practices, particularly in the management of thyroid patients. Ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy (US-FNAB) of thyroid lesions is a useful interventional diagnostic technique which can be readily performed by endocrine surgeons as an office-based procedure offering significant convenience for the patient. A retrospective review of US-FNAB's performed in a single surgeon practice between 2006 and 2008 was undertaken particularly assessing the diagnostic outcomes and complication rates. Factors affecting FNAB outcome were tested using Chi-square test and significance defined as p < 0.05. A total of 128 FNABs were performed on 100 patients in the time period under review. Mean lesion size was 22 mm, and the majority were solid on US. US-FNAB had sensitivity of 85%, accuracy 75%. No complications were reported. A total of 14.8% of samples were reported as either malignant, atypical or with Hurthle cell findings. In this series of patients, 22% of cases proceeded to thyroidectomy, 46% of which yielded malignancy. The nondiagnostic rate was only 5.5%. Solid lesions < 2 cm were associated with higher nondiagnostic rate (p = 0.04). Surgeon-performed thyroid US-FNAB is a safe and effective procedure which compares favorably to radiologist-performed series and offers a convenient ‘one-stop’ process for patients. In this series, it was associated with a low nondiagnostic rate and a low complication rate. Surgeon-performed US-FNAB techniques can be easily acquired; however, structured training and appropriate credentialing are important for the maintenance of quality assurance standards.
The association of vocal cord paralysis with tumors in the neck generally raises the suspicion of an underlying malignancy. We report the clinical course, imaging and operative findings in a patient with secondary hyperparathyroidism presenting with vocal cord paralysis. The related literature is also reviewed. A 45-year-old man with end-stage renal failure was awaiting surgical treatment for secondary hyperparathyroidism. Ultrasound of the neck demonstrated hypoechoic nodules consistent with enlarged parathyroid glands. Several months later, just before the scheduled date for parathyroid surgery, he developed increasing hoarseness and vocal fatigue. Direct laryngoscopy revealed an immobile left vocal cord (VC). Neck examination and further imaging did not reveal the source of VC palsy. A presumptive diagnosis of thyroid or parathyroid malignancy involving the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) was made. Intraoperatively, four enlarged parathyroid glands were encountered. The left superior gland was seen stretching and displacing the RLN without evidence of direct invasion. This was successfully dissected off while preserving the RLN. The remaining three parathyroid glands were subsequently removed with autotransplantation of a parathyroid remnant. In addition, a left thyroid lobectomy and ipsilateral level VI dissection was performed. Final pathology revealed parathyroid hyperplasia and thyroid follicular adenoma. No malignancy was seen. Three weeks later, the patient's biochemistry had normalized and his voice improved. Laryngoscopy confirmed a mobile left VC. Benign parathyroid tumors are rarely associated with RLN compression leading to VC paralysis. Such diagnoses are difficult to make preoperatively. In the absence of malignant invasion, the RLN should be preserved during surgery as it is likely to recover once the compression is relieved.
Collision tumors are distinct and rare groups of neoplasms characterized by occurrence of two histologically different neoplasms at one site as a single lesion without significant tissue admixture. They are described in different parts of the body including adrenal glands. Collision tumors reported in relation to adrenal gland are mainly combinations of adenoma and metastasis. Here we present a case of incidentally detected adrenal collision tumor with adenoma and hemangioma as components which is a very rare and unique occurrence.
Ana Karena Neukirch,
How to cite this article:
Neukirch AK, Heckmann C, Weyerbrock N, Günther S, Dotzenrath C. Overlap of Pseudohypoparathyroidism and Primary Hyperparathyroidism in a Patient: Just a Coincidence?. World J Endoc Surg 2011; 3 (3):128-130.
A 56-year-old female patient with the phenotype of Albright's hereditary osteodystrophy (AHO) and pseudohypoparathyroidism 1a (PHP) diagnosed in 1987 was shown to have a heterozygote inactivating mutation on the GNAS1 gene. The patient has been treated with oral calcium and vitamin D since diagnosis of PHP 1a and developed primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT) in 2009. Ultrasound as well as 99Tcsestamibi could demonstrate a lesion in the right lower position. Intraoperatively, a solitary parathyroid adenoma was found and resected leading to a ‘normalization’ of PTH and calcium. This case highlight is the rare coincidence of PHP, AHO and pHPT.
In patients with renal failure, hypocalcemia leads to multiglandular parathyroid growth and parathyroid hypersecretion. Parathyroidectomy has been shown to decrease cardiovascular events and mortality in these patients. One of the challenges of surgery for secondary hyperparathyroidism is the high reported incidence of supernumerary and ectopic glands. This in conjuction with reported low sensitivity of preoperative imaging studies in multigland disease and unclear criteria for intraoperative PTH in 2HPT may lead to incomplete parathyroidectomy and need for reoperation. We report a case of recurrent 2HPT from an ectopic supernumerary gland in the high retropharyngeal region found by CT imaging. Due to the patient's obesity, short neck and history of prior neck surgery, we elected to excise the gland transorally using intraoperative EUS.
One of the three principal therapies of Graves' disease is radioiodine treatment. Hypothyroidism is considered as a treatment end point of successful radioiodine treatment for Graves' disease. The radioiodine-induced hypothyroidism is mostly irreversible. Though, early recurrences can be due to treatment failure, inadequate radioiodine dose or rarely due to Marine-Lenhart syndrome. Here, we report a rare case of recurrent Graves' disease, 3 years after successful radioiodine therapy induced hypothyroidism in a 50-year-old lady.
How to cite this article:
Armstrong C, Pasieka JL, Harvey A. Adrenal Incidentaloma: A Cautionary Tale of Three Cases of Adrenocortical Carcinoma Arising from Apparently Benign Incidentalomas. World J Endoc Surg 2011; 3 (3):137-143.
Unexpected incidental findings on cross-sectional imaging are becoming more commonplace in today's medical practice. These are likely due to ongoing improvements in the resolution of cross-sectional imaging and our increasing use of these tests combined with an aging population. In the case of the adrenal incidentalomas the majority of these represent benign nonfunctional adenomas and these are believed to have no malignant potential. On the contrary adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is an uncommon malignancy that carries a high mortality. Current biochemical and radiological follow-up investigations are expensive and are of limited benefit in the majority of cases of adrenal incidentalomas. This has created a dilemma for the proper diagnostic, clinical and radiologic follow-up as well as the triggers for surgical intervention. We present a series of three patients presenting with ACC that retrospectively arose from a small incidentally found adrenal lesion. Three patients were identified with ACC arising from an apparently benign adrenal incidentaloma. The average size of the original lesion was 1.6 cm whereas the average size of their adrenal tumor was 9.3 cm when they presented with ACC. Two of the three cases were found to develop functional tumors at the time of the diagnosis of ACC. Two of the three cases underwent surgical resection. The third patient was found to have metastatic disease at presentation and declined surgical intervention. We agree that current follow-up guidelines result in an increasing burden on our healthcare system; with expensive biochemical testing and imaging for what in most cases will prove to be a benign adenoma, these three cases have influenced our current strategies for follow-up. At the present time, we continue to follow the AAES/AACE guidelines. The development of improved methods of biochemical, radiologic and tissue diagnosis may help to improve our ability to recognize an ACC in this population at an earlier and potentially curable stage.
Manuel C Durán Poveda,
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Dralle H, Sitges-Serra A, Angelos P, Poveda MC, Dionigi G, Barczynski M, Phelan E, Randolph G. Intraoperative Monitoring of the Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve during Thyroidectomy: A Standardized Approach (Part 1). World J Endoc Surg 2011; 3 (3):144-150.
One of the most feared complications in thyroid surgery is injury to the superior laryngeal nerve or recurrent laryngeal nerve. Neural identification during surgery is insufficient to assess nerve injury. Intraoperative nerve monitoring of the vagal nerve and recurrent laryngeal nerve during thyroid surgery is a new adjunct designed to allow better identification of nerves at risk and therefore reduce complications related to their injury. This new working tool does not substitute adequate surgical technique but merely provides the surgeon with an adjunct to routine visual identification and functional assessment. The use of nerve monitoring requires standardization of the monitoring procedure. Pursuant to this, we will discuss in two related articles the current state of the art standardized technique of nerve monitoring in thyroid surgery. The aim of part 1 is to provide a concise overview of nerve monitoring in thyroid surgery and its effectiveness. This will include a brief review of the surgical anatomy of the recurrent laryngeal nerve and the key landmarks used to identify the nerve during surgery. Part 2 will describe how to perform the standardized nerve monitoring in a step by step fashion during thyroid surgery which will diminish variable results and misleading information associated with a nonstandardized nerve monitoring procedure.