World Journal of Endocrine Surgery

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2017 | May-August | Volume 9 | Issue 2

ORIGINAL ARTICLE

Nihal Thomas, Dukhabandhu Naik

Editorial

[Year:2017] [Month:May-August] [Volume:9] [Number:2] [Pages:1] [Pages No:0 - 0]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/wjoes-9-2-iv  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

ORIGINAL ARTICLE

Haim Paran,, Guy Elad,, Sydney Benchetrit,, Igal Griton,, Ilana Haas,, Ori Yaslowitz,, Pavel Shmulevsky

Long-term Outcomes of Unilateral Adrenalectomy in Patients with Dominant-side Adrenal Hyperplasia

[Year:2017] [Month:May-August] [Volume:9] [Number:2] [Pages:4] [Pages No:37 - 40]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10002-1207  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Introduction

Usual treatment for patients with aldosterone-producing adrenal adenoma is adrenalectomy, whereas adrenal hyperplasia is generally treated medically. Selective adrenal venous sampling (AVS) has been adopted to differentiate between adenoma and hyperplasia. A previous ratio used in our institution for the diagnosis of adenoma proved to be too low. As a result, a disproportionate number of patients with a preoperative diagnosis of adenoma were operated and subsequently found to have hyperplasia.

Materials and methods

This prospective study evaluated the long-term outcomes of unilateral laparoscopic adrenalectomy in the setting of lateralizing aldosterone hypersecretion caused by adrenal hyperplasia.

Results

Twelve patients with unilateral excess aldosterone production due to hyperplasia underwent dominant side adrenalectomy. Long-term follow-up (mean 12 years) of these patients showed that blood pressure decreased from a mean of 163.4 ± 17.5/100 to 131.5 ± 9.7/80 mm Hg (p < 0.05), and the number of antihypertensive drugs decreased from 4.3 ± 0.7 to 2.2 ± 0.9 (p < 0.05). Mean potassium level increased from 3.7 to 4.2 mEq/L and the plasma aldosterone level decreased from 26.5 to 10.1 ng/dL.

Conclusion

Dominant side adrenalectomy in patients with primary aldosteronism (PA) due to hyperplasia results in long-term clinical improvement. This procedure should be considered in selected patients with lateralization confirmed by venous sampling.

How to cite this article

Paran H, Elad G, Benchetrit S, Griton I, Haas I, Yaslowitz O, Shmulevsky P. Long-term Outcomes of Unilateral Adrenalectomy in Patients with Dominant-side Adrenal Hyperplasia. World J Endoc Surg 2017;9(2):37-40.

ORIGINAL ARTICLE

Rv Suresh, KS Thalavai Sundarram,, Dhalapathy Sadacharan,, Krishnan Ravikumar,, S Kalpana,

Role of Color Doppler Ultrasonography in Differentiation of Graves’ Disease from Thyroiditis: A Prospective Study

[Year:2017] [Month:May-August] [Volume:9] [Number:2] [Pages:5] [Pages No:41 - 45]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10002-1208  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Introduction

Thyrotoxicosis due to Graves’ disease (GD) and destructive thyroiditis (DT) needs differentiation, as management strategy differs. Factors that help in diagnosis are biochemical and nuclear imaging. Utility of high-resolution ultrasonography (HRUSG) and color Doppler (CD) in differentiation is not widely practiced. We undertook the prospective study in the Department of Endocrine Surgery at a tertiary care center among South Indian population in 1 year as a cost-effective model

Materials and methods

Out of 120 newly diagnosed thyrotoxicosis patients, 54 were GD (group I) and 66 were DT (group II) patients. Totally, 55 euthyroid patients served as controls. Parameters analyzed were demography, free thyroid function test (TFT) anti-thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor antibody (TSHrAB), antithyroid peroxidase antibody (ATPO), anti-thyroglobulin antibody (ATG), and Tc-99m thyroid scintigraphy. Parameters analyzed using HRUSG and CD were peak systolic velocity (PSV), end-diastolic volume (EDV), pulsatility index (PI), resistive index (RI) of bilateral superior thyroid artery (STA) and inferior thyroid artery (ITA).

Results

Both groups were age and sex matched. The TFT, ATPO, and ATG were comparable between both groups (p = 0.609). The TSHrAB (IU/mL) was significantly higher in group I (36.11 ± 0.82) than group II (1.23 ± 0.24) (p < 0.001). Mean thyroid volume (mL) was higher in group I (28.9 ± 14.9) than group II (26.2 ± 8.81) (p = 0.022). Mean PSV-STA (cm/s) was statistically higher in group I (54.09 ± 4.67) than group II (28.92 ± 4.39) (p ≤ 0.001). Mean PSV-ITA (cm/s) was higher in group I (32.11 ± 2.45) than group II (25.23 ± 3.45) (p = 0.006). Other parameters measured in both arteries like mean EDV (cm/s), mean RI, and mean PI were comparable between both groups.

Conclusion

The HRUSG with CD evaluation of PSV STA and ITA is a cost-effective alternative to TSHrAB and thyroid scintigraphy in differentiating GD from DT patients. Additionally, we observed that PSV in STA was higher than in ITA in patients with GD. To conclude, HRUSG and CD are simple, cost-effective, and widely available tools in the differentiation of GD from DT.

How to cite this article

Sundarram KST, Sadacharan D, Ravikumar K, Kalpana S, Suresh RV. Role of Color Doppler Ultrasonography in Differentiation of Graves’ Disease from Thyroiditis: A Prospective Study. World J Endoc Surg 2017;9(2):41-45.

ORIGINAL ARTICLE

SK Mishra, Amit Agarwal, Anand K Mishra,, Sudeep Kumar,

Assessment of Cardiovascular System Abnormalities in Patients with Advanced Primary Hyperparathyroidism by Detailed Echocardiographic Analysis: A Prospective Study

[Year:2017] [Month:May-August] [Volume:9] [Number:2] [Pages:5] [Pages No:46 - 50]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10002-1209  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

Recognizing the paucity of data regarding the incidence of cardiovascular abnormalities in severe primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT), a prospective study was done for left ventricular (LV) systolic and diastolic function by echocardiography in patients with hyperparathyroidism (HPT) before surgery.

Materials and methods

A total of 18 consecutive patients with HPT and an equal number of age- and sex-matched controls were studied by two-dimensional and Doppler echocardiography.

Results

Patients with HPT had higher systolic and diastolic blood pressures (BPs). Despite severe bone disease, nephropathy, and vitamin D deficiency, none had metastatic calcification in myocardium. There was no significant increase in LV systolic dimensions and volume, but decreased ejection fraction (EF) and significant diastolic dysfunction were observed.

Conclusion

Despite an asymptomatic cardiac status, there were decreased EF and significant diastolic dysfunction. The HPT patients despite having severe disease, did not have metastatic calcification.

How to cite this article

Mishra AK, Agarwal A, Kumar S, Mishra SK. Assessment of Cardiovascular System Abnormalities in Patients with Advanced Primary Hyperparathyroidism by Detailed Echocardiographic Analysis: A Prospective Study. World J Endoc Surg 2017;9(2):46-50.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Mei W Wong,, Imisairi A Hadi,, Kamarul I Musa

Revisiting Types and Risk Factors for Thyroid Malignancy in a State Endemic of Iodine Deficiency Goiter

[Year:2017] [Month:May-August] [Volume:9] [Number:2] [Pages:4] [Pages No:51 - 54]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10002-1210  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Introduction

We have realized that recent rise in incidence of thyroid malignancy is partly because of incidental findings of cancer after resection for benign goiters. Therefore, we aim to reanalyze risk factors for thyroid malignancy in those patients who underwent primary thyroid surgery at Breast and Endocrine Surgical Unit, Department of Surgery, Hospital Raja Perempuan Zainab II, Kota Bharu, Kelantan, Malaysia.

Materials and methods

Retrospective review in our database found 699 patients who had undergone thyroid surgeries between June 2007 and December 2014. According to the final histopathological report of resected specimen, these patients, operated for goiter, were divided into two groups: Thyroid malignancy group and nonmalignancy group. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the risk of age, duration and weight of resected specimen for having thyroid malignancy.

Results

The mean value for age was 43.5 years [standard deviation (SD) = 14.0); duration of neck swelling was 5.9 months (SD = 6.7); and weight of resected specimen was 157 gm (SD = 161.0). Around 26.9% cases had thyroid malignancy (n = 188), about 77.13% cases had papillary thyroid carcinoma and 17.6% had follicular thyroid carcinoma. Age associates with risk for malignancy (p < 0.001), but duration of neck swelling (p = 0.513) and weight of resected specimen (p = 0.955) do not relate with this. With an increase of 1 year of age, the odds to have thyroid malignancy increase for 2%. This is equivalent with 14.4% increase in cancer for every 5-year increase in age.

Conclusion

Our study has found that increasing age is the only associated factor for risk of thyroid malignancy. When managing elderly patients who has clinically benign goiter, differential diagnosis of thyroid cancer need be considered as well.

How to cite this article

Wong MW, Hadi IA, Musa KI. Revisiting Types and Risk Factors for Thyroid Malignancy in a State Endemic of Iodine Deficiency Goiter. World J Endoc Surg 2017;9(2):51-54.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Thomas Furderer,, Nicolas Bouviez,, Brice Paquette,, Gerard Landecy,, Bruno Heyd, Gabriel Vienney,, Zaher Lakkis,, Mael Tauziede

Frozen Tissue Examination: Is It really no Longer of Use in Parathyroid Surgery? Single-center Retrospective Study on 97 Patients treated by minimally Invasive Approach

[Year:2017] [Month:May-August] [Volume:9] [Number:2] [Pages:6] [Pages No:55 - 60]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10002-1211  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Introduction

Surgery, by minimally invasive approach, has become the gold standard in the treatment of primary hyperparathyroidism. However, the preoperative and intraoperative examinations to be performed are still subject to debate. The frozen tissue examination of the parathyroidectomy specimen is often criticized, as it is deemed difficult and noninformative in case of multiglandular disease. The primary objective was to study the result of the frozen tissue examination and its benefit in the operative strategy in minimally invasive surgery.

Materials and methods

This is a single-centre retrospective descriptive study on patients who underwent surgery for primary hyperparathyroidism between January 2011 and September 2013 at Besançon Centre Hospitalier Régional Universitaire (CHRU) [Regional University Hospital Center]. Inclusion criteria consisted of: At least one contributory preoperative imaging test, a focused approach, and an intraoperative frozen tissue examination with microscopic analysis of the surgical specimen.

Results

A total of 157 patients were treated for hyperparathyroidism and 97 were enrolled in the study. The mean age was 62.3 ± 13.7 years, mean serum calcium was 2.81 ± 0.24 mmol/L and the mean parathyroid hormone (PTH) level was 175 ± 120 pg/mL. Around 53 patients (54.6%) had concordant scintigraphic and ultrasound examinations while 20 patients (20.6%) had an isolated contributory scintigraphic examination, 21 patients (21.6%) had an isolated contributory cervical ultrasound and 3 patients had discordant examinations. The sensitivity of the preoperative imaging in case of concordance was 84.9% for the location of the diseased gland, and 92.4% for its lateralization. The sensitivity to ultrasound alone and scintigraphy alone was 61.9% and 65% respectively. Nearly 23 false positive imaging results were found in which 11 were corrected during surgery by the surgeon based on the macroscopic appearance. The frozen tissue examination of the surgical specimen changed the surgical strategy in 12 cases (12.4%): Six results of normal parathyroid gland (50%), four results of thyroid tissue (33.3%), and two cases of hyperplastic gland (16.7%). The results of the frozen tissue examination thus led to 12 exploratory cervicotomies, which revealed three ipsilateral adenomas (25%), six contralateral adenomas, and one adenoma included in the thyroid lobe, and enabled the surgeon to perform two subtotal parathyroidectomies for parathyroid hyperplasia. The mean duration of the frozen tissue examination was 24.2 ± 8.6 minutes and the cure rate is 100% for the population treated by minimally invasive approach.

Conclusion

In our experience, the frozen tissue examination enabled the surgeon to intraoperatively correct 12 erroneous imaging diagnoses, including two cases of parathyroid hyperplasia and thus to continue the exploration of other glands and immediately carry out the appropriate treatment. This is an interesting technique, but it is conditioned by the pathologist’s expertise.

How to cite this article

Furderer T, Bouviez N, Paquette B, Landecy G, Heyd B, Vienney G, Lakkis Z, Tauziede M. Frozen Tissue Examination: Is It really no Longer of Use in Parathyroid Surgery? Single-center Retrospective Study on 97 Patients treated by minimally Invasive Approach. World J Endoc Surg 2017;9(2):55-60.

CASE REPORT

Benjamin C James,, Hee D Jeon,, Michael Rozenfeld,, Tatjana Antic,, Edwin L Kaplan, Peter Angelos,, Raymon H Grogan

Adrenal-renal Fusion: A Rare and Challenging Case for the Adrenal Surgeon

[Year:2017] [Month:May-August] [Volume:9] [Number:2] [Pages:4] [Pages No:61 - 64]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10002-1212  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

How to cite this article

James BC, Jeon HD, Rozenfeld M, Antic T, Kaplan EL, Angelos P, Grogan RH. Adrenal-renal Fusion: A Rare and Challenging Case for the Adrenal Surgeon. World J Endoc Surg 2017;9(2):61-64.

CASE REPORT

Amit Rastogi,, Vansh Priya,, Paurush Ambesh,, Vertika Sachan

Glomus Jugulare Tumor: Selective Catecholamine Screening – A Golden Miss?

[Year:2017] [Month:May-August] [Volume:9] [Number:2] [Pages:3] [Pages No:65 - 67]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10002-1213  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

How to cite this article

Rastogi A, Priya V, Ambesh P, Sachan V. Glomus Jugulare Tumor: Selective Catecholamine Screening – A Golden Miss? World J Endoc Surg 2017;9(2):65-67.

CASE REPORT

Sachender Pal Singh, Devendra K Jain, Subhabrata Das,

Lingual Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma with Bilateral Neck Node Metastasis

[Year:2017] [Month:May-August] [Volume:9] [Number:2] [Pages:4] [Pages No:68 - 71]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10002-1214  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

How to cite this article

Singh SP, Das S, Jain DK. Lingual Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma with Bilateral Neck Node Metastasis. World J Endoc Surg 2017;9(2):68-71.

How WE DO IT

Anish Kolly,, Vijaya Sarathi,, Sapana Bothra,, Aromal Chekavar,

Hypocalcemia: What a Surgeon should know

[Year:2017] [Month:May-August] [Volume:9] [Number:2] [Pages:6] [Pages No:72 - 77]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10002-1215  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

How to cite this article

Kolly A, Sarathi V, Bothra S, Chekavar A, Sabaretnam M, Agarwal A. Hypocalcemia: What a Surgeon should know. World J Endoc Surg 2017;9(2):72-77.

ENDOCRINE IMAGE

Anand K Mishra, Kul R Singh,

Adrenal Teratoma: Unusual Tumor with Typical Imaging Characteristics

[Year:2017] [Month:May-August] [Volume:9] [Number:2] [Pages:1] [Pages No:78 - 78]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10002-1216  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

How to cite this article

Ramakant P, Singh KR, Mishra AK. Adrenal Teratoma: Unusual Tumor with Typical Imaging Characteristics. World J Endoc Surg 2017;9(2):78.

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